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生態學大家

已有 1690 次閱讀 2018-12-21 17:39 |系統分類:人物紀事| 生態學家

近期,Simon Harold按照出生月份和日期順序列出了已故的著名生態學家。通過維基百科名人介紹,Simon Harold發現了生態學家有趣的一面,如生態系統概念的提出者Tansley曾跟著精神分析大師Freud學習精神分析;古生物學家Buckland曾經發誓要嘗遍整個動物界每個物種的味道,作者打趣到他難道也要吃吃蒼蠅不成?

生態學家首先是社會人,然后才是生態學家。他們中有些社會工作做得也突出,如Margaret Collins為公民權利而吶喊,Miriam Rothschild為爭取男同性戀的正當權益而吶喊,Annie Lorraine Smith,Marian FarquharsonMary Agnes Chase為婦女爭取選舉權的舉動甚至有些瘋狂,其中Chase還由于在白宮前焚燒總統的講稿而被捕入獄,是一個莫道書生空議論的典型代表。

還有一些生態學家的工作受到二戰的影響,如Pielou曾在英國海軍服役,Rathbun曾工作于紅十字會等。

生態學家的實驗室就是大自然,突發情況常有,因此也有比較嚇人的舉動,如鳥類生態學家Emilie Snethlage被食人魚咬傷感染后當機立斷砍下自己的手指,昆蟲學家Evelyn Cheesman僅用指甲銼就能從被困的蜘蛛網死里逃生,植物學家Janaki Ammal從印度走私一種松鼠到英國僅為了養寵物或好玩。

這些生態學大家的軼事讀起來活靈活現,能使我們對他們在生態上的重大發現有更加感性的認識。他們雖已故去,但依然鮮活可愛。

遺憾的是,目前的名單只有一位中國學者胡先骕,作者也在倡議說出你所知道的生態學大家。因此我留言推薦我國的植物生理生態家—李繼侗和植物學家—吳征鎰。

下面我們看看作者列出的生態學大家,看有沒有你認識的:

原文鏈接:https://natureecoevocommunity.nature.com/users/17999-simon-harold/posts/42420-great-lives-in-ecology-and-evolution

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30th Jan G Evelyn Hutchinson (1903-1991) British ecologist who made substantial contributions to the development of modern ecological science, including the fields of limnology, systems ecology, and niche theory.

1st Feb Frederico Hoehne (1882-1959) Brazilian botanist who worked at the São Paulo Institute of Botany for more than 40 years, eventually becoming its Director.

4th Feb Thomas Risley Odhiambo (1931- 2003) Kenyan entomologist and founder of the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology “to enable Africa to sustain herself and to lead the entire pan-tropical world in this area of endeavour”.

6th Feb Harriet Bell Merrill (1863-1915) US aquatic ecologist and first woman to hold an office in the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, being elected Vice President-Sciences in 1896.

6th Feb Mary Leakey (1913-1996) British paleoanthropologist who discovered the 3.2 million year old hominid footprints at Laetoli, and the fossils of hominin Zinjanthropus (later Paranthropus) bosei in Olduvai gorge (Tanzania).

7th Feb Karl Möbius (1825-1908) German zoologist often thought of as the founder of community ecology.

20th Feb Evelyn Chrystalla "E.C." Pielo (1924-2016) Pioneer of mathematical ecology, and the second woman to receive Ecological Society of America’s Eminent Ecologist award.

12th Mar William Buckland (1784-1856) British geologist, palaeontologist, and theologian who wrote the first scientific account of a fossil dinosaur -- which he named Megalosaurus.

17th Mar Cornelia Clapp (1849-1934) US marine biologist who earned both the first *and* second biology PhD’s awarded to women in the United States.

27th Mar Anna Weber-van Bosse (1852-1942) Dutch botanist specialising in marine algae, and the first woman to receive a PhD in the Netherlands.

29th Mar Charles Elton (1900-1991) Founding figure of modern ecology, most notably in the sub-disciplines population ecology, niche theory and invasion ecology .

1st April Wangari Maathai (1940-2011) Kenyan environmental activist and the first African woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize. She was also the first woman from East and Central Africa to earn a PhD.

2nd April Maria Sybilla Merian (1647-1717) Pioneering scientific illustrator, naturalist, and explorer.

7th April Robert MacArthur (1930-1972) North American ecologist who had a profound influence on the development of modern ecology, especially in theoretical-, evolutionary-, and community ecology.

13th April Emilie Snethlage (1868-1969) German-born Brazilian ornithologist who was one of the first women to lead a scientific institution in Latin America.

17th April Irene Manton (1904-1988) British botanist specialising in ferns and algae, and first female President of the Linnean Society.

19th April E Lucy Braun (1899-1971) US botanist and ecologist, and first woman to be elected President of the Ecological Society of America.

26th April Enrique Beltrán Castillo (1903-1994) Pioneering Latin American conservationist and one of the first professional biologists in Mexico.

29th April Mary Agnes Chase (1869-1963) US botanist and women's rights campaigner.

5th May Dorothy Garrod (1892-1968) British archaeologist and first female professor at Oxbridge.

6th May Ann Haven Morgan (1882- 1966) US aquatic ecologist known for her exhaustive work on the taxonomy and biology of mayflies.

16th May Margaret Fountaine (1862-1940) British entomologist, illustrator and diarist, who was among the first female Fellows elected to the Royal Entomological Society and the Linnean Society.

21st May Mary Anning (1799-1847) British palaeontologist who discovered the first complete ichthyosaur and plesiosaur skeletons.

23rd May Carl Linnaeus (1707-1788): Swedish botanist and zoologist, often called the father of modern taxonomy.

24th May Hu Xiansu (1894-1968) Chinese botanist credited with founding modern plant taxonomy in China.

27th May Rachel Carson (1907-1964) US ecologist and writer, who led a global change in pesticide policy, and is credited with galvanising the modern environmental movement.

8th June Harriet Hemenway (1858-1960) U.S. socialite and pioneer in conservation activism who co-founded the Massachusetts Audubon Society.

11th June Mary Jane Rathbun (1860-1943) US marine zoologist specialising in crustaceans, and first female full-time Curator at the Smithsonian.

30th June Joan Murrell Owens (1933-2011) US marine biologist specialising in button corals, and one of the first African-American women to earn a doctorate in geology.

2nd July Marian Farquharson (1846-1912) British botanist specialising in ferns and mosses, and campaigner for women's rights.

6th July N Balakrishnan Nair (1927-2010) Indian marine ecologist and conservation campaigner

17th July: Cândido Firmino de Mello-Leitão (1886 -1948), Brazilian zoologist and taxonomist specialising in Arachnids, and former President of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences.

18th July Gilbert White (1720-1793) British naturalist and clergyman, whose book "The Natural History of Selborne" is considered a pioneering work in ecology and natural history.

5th Aug Miriam Rothschild (1908-2005) British entomologist, parasitologist, World War II codebreaker, and campaigner for gay rights.

8th Aug Florence Merriam Bailey (1863-1948) US ornithologist, nature writer and activist, credited with creating the first modern field guide. She was also the first woman Fellow of the American Ornithologists' Union.

14th Aug Ernest Everett Just (1883-1941) Pioneering African-American marine biologist specialising in embryology and development.

16th Aug Cynthia Longfield (1896-1991) Anglo-Irish entomologist affectionately known as "Madame Dragonfly" , and first female member of the Entomological Society of London.

20th Aug Roger Arliner Young (1899-1964) US marine biologist, and first African-American woman to earn a doctorate in zoology  and first to publish in the journal Science.

31st Aug Helen Battle (1903-1994) the first woman in Canada to earn a PhD in marine biology, and co-founder of the Canadian Society of Zoologists.

1st Sept Anna Botsford Comstock (1854-1930) US naturalist, illustrator and educator, and leading figure in the Nature Study movement, advocating outdoor learning.

4th Sept Margaret S Collins (1922-,1996) Pioneering US entomologist and civil rights activist, and one of the first African-American women to earn a PhD in zoology.

14th Sept Arthur Tansley (1871-1955) British botanist and leading figure in the development of modern ecology, who first introduced the concept of the "ecosystem".

24th Sept Jeanne Villepreux-Power (1794-1981) Pioneering French marine biologist who invented the aquarium.

30th Sept Helia Bravo Hollis (1901-2001) Mexican botanist who made major contributions to the conservation and taxonomy of cacti.

3rd Oct Ángeles Alvariño (1916-2005) Spanish marine biologist and oceanographer, and the first woman appointed as a scientist aboard a Spanish or British research ship.

8th Oct Evelyn Cheesman (1882-1969) British entomologist and explorer, and first female curator at London Zoo.

14th Oct Edith Rebecca Saunders (1865-1945) Pioneering botanist who was once dubbed the "Mother of British plant genetics".

23rd Oct Annie Lorraine Smith (1854-1937) British fungal biologist specialising in lichens, and first female president of the British Mycological Society.

30th Oct Olga Fedchenko (1845-1921) Russian botanist who catalogued the flora of Central Asia, and who was the second woman elected to the Russian Academy of Sciences.

4th Nov Janaki Ammal (1897-1984) Indian botanist who transformed agriculture in the country, and was one of the first women scientists to receive the Padma Shri, one of India's highest civilian awards.

26th Nov Ruth Patrick (1907-2013) Pioneering US freshwater ecologist, and first woman to be awarded the Eminent Ecologist award from the Ecological Society of America.

29th Nov John Ray (1627-1705) British naturalist and taxonomist, and first person to define ‘species’ as a biological term.

3rd Dec Octavia Hill (1838-1912) and Ellen Swallow Richards (1842-1911) Two women born on different continents, but who would each independently transform how we view the relationship between the urban and the natural world. 

6th Dec Margaret Nice (1883-1974) US ornithologist renowned for her detailed studies of song sparrows, who revolutionised the fields of ethology, life history, and behaviour.



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