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漢英德對比學習:美作為德性的象征;鑒賞方法論

已有 216 次閱讀 2019-5-6 09:41 |個人分類:哲學|系統分類:人文社科| 鑒賞, 方法論, 美作為德性的象征

§59.美作為德性的象征 

On Beauty as the Symbol of Morality

Von der Schönheit als Symbol der Sittlichkeit         /German Dic

要顯示(establish確立證實表明)概念的實在性永遠需要有直觀。如果它們是經驗性的概念,那么這些直觀就叫作實例。如果它們是純粹知性概念,那么這些直觀就被稱之為圖型。如果人們甚至要求理性概念(即理念)的客觀實在性,也為了達到對理念的理論知識而得到顯示(establish),那么人們就是在欲求某種不可能的東西,因為絕對不可能與這些理念相適合地給出任何直觀。 Establishing that our concepts have reality always requires intuitions. If the concepts are empirical, the intuitions are called examples. If they are pure concepts of the understanding, the intuitions are called schemata. But if anyone goes as far as to demand that we establish the objective reality of the rational concepts (i.e., the ideas) for the sake of their theoretical cognition, then he asks for something impossible, because absolutely no intuition can be given that would be adequate to them. [但如果有人為了諸理性概念(即諸理念)的理論認知,而要求我們確立它們(理性概念)的客觀實在性,那么他就要求一些不可能的東西]

Die Realität unserer Begriffe darzutun證明, werden immer Anschauungen erfordert. Sind es empirische Begriffe, so heißen die letzteren Beispiele. Sind jene reine Verstandesbegriffe, so werden die letzteren Schemate genannt. Verlangt 渴求 man gar(完全),daß die objektive Realität der Vernunftbegriffe, d. i. der Ideen, und zwar (亦即)zum Behuf (目的end) des theoretischen Erkenntnisses derselben dargetan werde, so begehrt man etwas Unmögliches, weil ihnen schlechterdings keine Anschauung angemessen gegeben werden kann.  // dargetan:showed ,begehrt:sought after; derselben(the same,同一個)

Z 論美作為道德性的象征 ……如果人們更要求著理性諸概念,即諸觀念的客觀的實在性,并且是為了表示出它們的理論的認識,那么人們就是要求著不可能的東西,因沒有任何直觀能適合這些觀念。

一切作為感性化的生動描繪(演示, subiectio sub adspectum 付諸直觀)都是雙重的:要么是圖型式的,這時知性所把握的一個概念被給予了相應的先天直觀;要么是象征性的,這時一個只有理性才能想到而沒有任何感性直觀能與之相適合的概念就被配以這樣一種直觀,借助于它,判斷力的處理方式與它在圖型化中所觀察到的東西就僅僅是類似的,亦即與這種東西僅僅按照這種處理方式的規則而不是按照直觀本身,因而只是按照反思的形式而不是按照內容而達成一致。一切的表現(Hypotypose)作為感性化是在二種場合

All hypotyposis (exhibition, subiectio ad adspectum) consists in making la concepti sensible, and is either schematic or symbolic. In schematic hypotyposis there is a concept that the understanding has formed, and the intuition corresponding to it is given a priori. In symbolic hypotyposis there is a concept which only reason can think and to which no sensible intuition can be adequate, and this concept is supplied with an intuition that judgment treats in a way merely analogous to the procedure it follows in schematizing; i.e., the treatment agrees with this procedure merely in the rule followed rather than in terms of the intuition itself, and hence merely in terms of the form of the reflection rather than its content.   //hypotyposis:lifelike description of a thing or scene.Greek hypotypōsis outline, copy pattern, equivalent to hypo-(under) hypo- + typōsis forming, molding   (typ(os) beat, impression, mold + -ōsis . -osis)  a suffix occurring in nouns that denote actions, conditions, or states ( hypnosis.. ), especially disorders or abnormal states ( chlorosis; tuberculosis )

   durch einen beseelten Körper,

  Thus a monarchical state is represented by a soul-filled body…

 Thus a monarchy ruled according to its own constitutional laws would be presented as an animate body, but a monarchy ruled by an individual absolute will would be presented as a mere machine (such as a hand mill); but in either case the presentation is only sye wmbolic.  then all our cognition of God is merely symbolic. Whoever regards it as schematic--while including in it the properties of understanding, will, etc., whose objective reality is proved only in worldly beings--falls into anthropomorphism, just as anyone who omits everything intuitive falls into deism, which allows us to cognize nothing whatsoever, not even from a practical point of view) .[任何人把它看作圖式——包括知性、意志等屬性,其客觀實在性只在世俗的人身上得到證明——就屬于擬人化,就像任何人忽略了一切直覺的東西就屬于有神論/神化一樣,…)[anthropomorphism 擬人論,擬人觀;deism 自然神論,理神論 ]

 D 那么我們一切關于上帝的知識都只是象征的,而誰借助于知性意志等等這些只有在塵世的存在者身上才表明其客觀實在性的東西的特點而把這些知識看作圖型式的,就會陷入擬人主義,正如當他離開了直覺就會陷入理神論一樣,這樣一來就在任何地方哪怕在實踐的意圖上 也不會認識任何東西了。

 Z …如果他把一切直覺的排去,就陷入合理主義的有神論,在這個立場上任何方面不能有所認識,也不能在實踐的意味里。

so ist alle unsere Erkenntnis von Gott bloß symbolisch; und der, welcher sie mit den Eigenschaften Verstand, Wille, usw., die allein an Weltwesen ihre objektive Realität beweisen, für schematisch nimmt, gerät in den Anthropomorphism, so wie, wenn er alles Intuitive wegläßt, in den Deism, wodurch überall nichts, auch nicht in praktischer Absicht, erkannt wird. 

自然神論Deism)是1718世紀的出現的哲學觀點,主要是回應牛頓力學對傳統神學世界觀的沖擊。這個思想認為上帝創造了宇宙和它存在的規則,在此之后上帝并不再對這個世界的發展產生影響(與婆羅門教梵天的解釋相仿),而讓世界按照它本身的規律存在和發展下去。這里的自然神論主要是指具有閃米特一神教背景,并受其影響的西方唯一神教派自然神論者的觀點,而不是具有多神教背景的自然神論者等的觀點如泛自然神論。 自然神論者宗教觀為把上帝解釋為非人格的始因的宗教哲學理論,又稱理性神論。

201

1 美直接地令人喜歡(但只是在反思性的直觀中,而不是像德性那樣在概念中)。2.它沒有任何利害而令人喜歡(德性-善雖然必然與某種興趣利害結合著,但不是與那種先行于有關愉悅的判斷的興趣而是與那種通過這判斷才被引起的興趣結合著)。3 想像力的(因而我們能力的感性的)自由在對美的評判中被表現為與知性的合規律性是一致的(在道德判斷中意志的自由被設想為意志按照普遍的理性法則而與自身相協調)。

(1) The beautiful we like directly (but only in intuition reflect[ed upon], not in its concept, as we do morality). (2) We like it without any interest. (Our liking for the morally good is connected necessarily with an interest, but with an interest that does not precede our judgment about the liking but is produced by this judgment in the first place.) (3) In judging the beautiful, we present the freedom of the imagination (and hence [of] our power [of] sensibility) as harmonizing with the lawfulness of the understanding. (In a moral judgment we think the freedom of the will as the will's harmony with itself according to universal laws of reason.)

1) Das Schöne gefällt unmittelbar (aber nur in der reflektierenden Anschauung, nicht, wie Sittlichkeit, im Begriffe). 2) Es gefällt ohne alles Interesse (das Sittlich-Gute zwar notwendig mit einem Interesse, aber nicht einem solchen, was vor dem Urteile über das Wohlgefallen vorhergeht, verbunden, sondern was dadurch allererst bewirkt wird). 3) Die Freiheit der Einbildungskraft (also der Sinnlichkeit unseres Vermögens) wird in der Beurteilung des Schönen mit der Gesetzmäßigkeit des Verstandes als einstimmig vorgestellt (im moralischen Urteile wird die Freiheit des Willens als Zusammenstimmung des letzteren mit sich selbst nach allgemeinen Vernunftgesetzen gedacht). 

4.美的評判的主觀原則被表現為普遍有效、即對每個人都有效的,但卻不是通過任何普遍概念而看出的(道德的客觀原則也被解釋為普遍的,即對一切主體、同時也對同一主體的一切行動都是普遍的,但卻是通過一個普遍概念而看出的)。因此,道德判斷不僅能夠是確定的構成性原則,而且只有通過把準則建立在這些原則及其普遍性之上才有可能。

 (4) We present the subjective principle for judging the beautiful as universal. i.e., as valid for everyone, but as unknowable through any universal concept. (The objective principle of morality we also declare to be universal[ly valid]. i.e., [valid] for all subjects, as well as for all acts of the same subject, but also declare to be knowable through a universal concept.) Hence not only is a moral judgment capable of [having] determinate constitutive principles, but its possibility depends on our basing the[se] maxims on those principles and their universality. 

4) Das subjektive Prinzip der Beurteilung des Schönen wird als allgemein, d. i. für jedermann gültig, aber durch keinen allgemeinen Begriff kenntlich, vorgestellt (das objektive Prinzip der Moralität wird auch für allgemein, d. i. für alle Subjekte, zugleich auch für alle Handlungen desselben Subjekts, und dabei durch einen allgemeinen Begriff kenntlich, erklärt). Daher ist das moralische Urteil nicht allein bestimmter konstitutiver Prinzipien fähig, sondern ist nur durch Gründung der Maximen auf dieselben und ihre Allgemeinheit möglich.

60 鑒賞的方法論 On Methodology Concerning Taste

Z 先行于科學的把批判區分為要素論和方法論,是不能運用在鑒賞判斷上的:因為沒有美的科學,也不能有。而鑒賞的判斷是不能通過諸原理來規定的。涉及每種藝術里的科學性的東西,即是在客體的表現里以真理為目的,這個固然是美的藝術的不可避免的條件,卻不是美的藝術的自身。

A critique that precedes a science is divided into elementology and methodology. But this division is not applicable to a critique of taste, since there neither is, nor can be, a science of the beautiful, and a judgment of taste cannot be determined by means of principles. It is true that in every art there is a scientific [element] whose concern is that the object of this art be exhibited [or rendered ] truthfully, and which is indeed the indispensable condition (conditio sine qua non) of fine art, though it is not itself fine art. [的確,在每一門藝術中都有一種科學元素,它的關注點在于這一藝術的客體/對象被真實地展示(或呈現)出來,這確實是美術的必要條件(必要條件),盡管它本身不是美術。

在科學之前先把一種批判劃分為要素論和方法論,這不能夠應用在鑒賞力的批判上,因為沒有、也不可能有關于美的科學,而且鑒賞的判斷是不能通過原則來規定的。至于任何藝術中的科學性的東西,即針對著在表現藝術客體時的真實性的東西,那么它雖然是美的藝術的不可回避的條件(conditio sine qua non 1),但不是美的藝術本身。

Denn was das Wissenschaftliche in jeder Kunst anlangt, welches auf Wahrheit in der Darstellung ihres Objekts geht, so ist dieses zwar die unumgängliche Bedingung (conditio sine qua non) der schönen Kunst, aber diese nicht selber. Es gibt also für die schöne Kunst nur eine Manier (modus), nicht Lehrart (methodus). [For as far as the scientific in every art is concerned, which is concerned with truth in the representation of its object 關注是其客體的表現方面的真相/真實性 , this is indeed the indispensable condition (conditio sine qua non) of fine art, but this is not itself. So there is only one style  for fine art, not teaching.]

 Z 所以對于美的藝術只有手法(modus),沒有方法(methodus)。學生應該做到的東西,須老師先做給他看。他的手續最后概括出的那些一般性的法則,主要的關鍵是幫助學生們記憶,并不是定下規范來。

So in fine art there is only manner (modus), not method (methodus):[1] the master must show by his example [vormachen] what the student is to produce, and how. [所以在美術中只有方式,而不是方法:大師必須以身作則,展示學生要做什么,以及如何做。]He may in the end bring his procedure under universal rules, but these are more likely to be useful to the student as occasional reminders of what the main features of that procedure are, than as prescriptions of these features. [最后,他可能會將他的程序(如何做)置于普遍規則之下,但這些規則更可能對學生有用,作為對該程序的主要特征的不時地提醒,而不是作為這些特征的處方。]

所以對于美的藝術來說只有風格(modus),而沒有教學法( methodus)。大師必須示范學生應當做什么和應當如何做;而他最后使他的處理方式所服從的那些普遍規則,與其說可以用來把這種處理的主要因素頒布給學生,倒不如說只能用來附帶地把這些因素納入記憶之中。

[1]  Cf. the Logic. § 94, Ak. IX, 139: "All cognition, and a whole of cognition, must conform to a rule. (A lack of rules is also a lack of reason.) This rule is either manner (which is free) or method (which is constraint)." Cf. also above, § 49, Ak. 318-19.] 所有的認知和整個認知都必須符合規則。 (缺乏規則也是缺乏理性。)這個規則要么是方式(自由的),要么是方法(這是約束的)。

Der Meister muß es vormachen, was und wie es der Schüler zustande bringen soll;   
  
 
The master must demonstrate[show how to do]what and how the pupil should do it;  
  
 
und die allgemeinen Regeln, worunter er zuletzt sein Verfahren bringt,  
  
 
and the general rules under which he last (最后) brings his  method處理行事方法,做法   
  
 
können eher dienen, die Hauptmomente desselben gelegentlich in Erinnerung zu bringen,   
  
 
may more serve,the chief moments of the same,occasionally in memory to bring (=recall),   
   
 
als   sie   ihm vorzuschreiben.    (desselben=of the same 同一個   
  
   than them him prescribe.(開處方,指示命令)   
  
 
 
Hierbei muß dennoch auf ein gewisses Ideal Rücksicht genommen werden,    
  
   
Nevertheless, consideration must be given to a certain ideal, 必須加以考慮的是某種理想
  
 
welches die Kunst vor Augen haben muß, ob sie es gleich in ihrer Ausübung nie völlig erreicht.    
  
 
 
which art must have in mind, whether it never fully attains it in its exercise.

Z 但在這里仍須顧慮到藝術必須放置在眼前的某一規定的理想,雖然這是在他們的實踐里永遠不能達到的。只有喚起學生的想象力來適合一被給予的概念,注意表現對于觀念的不可企及性,這觀念是概念自身不能達到的,因此觀念是審美性質的。通過尖銳的批評可以防止他把那些擺在他面前的范例立刻就當做原型,而不再有更高的標準和他根據自己的批判所愿摹寫的范型,并且不使天才以及想象力的自由在它的合規律性里被窒息;沒有這自由就沒有美的藝術,甚至于不可能有對于它正確評判的鑒賞。

And yet the artist must bear in mind a certain ideal; art must keep this ideal in view even though in practice it never achieves it in full. The master must stimulate the student's imagination until it becomes commensurate 相稱with a given concept; he must inform the student if the latter [概念不能充分表達理念]has not adequately expressed the idea, the idea that even the concept cannot reach because the idea is aesthetic;

D 然而在這里必須加以考慮的是某種理想,它是藝術必須緊緊盯著的,盡管藝術在自己的進行過程中永遠也不能完全達到它。只有通過喚起學生的想像力去適合某種給予的概念,通過覺察到由于理念是審美的、是概念本身所達不到的,因而表達對它[理念]是不充分的,

and he must provide the student with sharp criticism. For only in this way can the master keep the student from immediately treating the examples offered him as if they were archetypes, models that he should imitate as if they were not subject to a still higher standard and to his own judgment, [an attitude] which would stifle窒息 his genius, and along with it would stifle also /the freedom that his imagination has /even in its lawfulness, [它即使在合規律性中也會扼殺其想象力所擁有的自由], the freedom without which there can be no fine art, indeed not even a correct taste of one's own by which to judge such art.

D 并且通過尖銳的批判, 才有可能防止那些擺在學生面前的榜樣[范例√]馬上就被他當作原型、當作決不服從任何更高的規范而是服從于他自己的評判的模仿范本,因而使天才、但與天才一起也使想像力本身 在其合規律性中 的自由遭到窒息,而沒有這種自由就沒有美的藝術,甚至就連一個正確地對美的藝術作評判的自己的鑒賞力也都是不可能的。

D一切美的藝術的入門,就其著眼于美的藝術的最高程度的完滿性而言,似乎并不在于規范,而在于使內心能力通過人們稱之為humaniorad[人文學科]的預備知識而得到陶冶:

It seems that for all fine art, insofar as we aim at its highest degree of perfection, the propaedeutic 預備;基本的does not consist in [following] precepts but in cultivating our mental powers by exposing ourselves beforehand to what we call humaniora; [似乎對于所有的藝術來說,就我們所追求的最高完美程度而言,基本的并不在于(遵循)戒律,而是在于通過事先將自己暴露于我們所稱的人文學科中來培養我們的精神力量;]

一切美的藝術的入門,在它意圖達成完滿性的最高程度的范圍內,似乎不在設立范則,而是在于心的諸力的陶冶通過人們所稱的古典學科的預備知識:大概因為人文主義一方面意味著共同感,另一方面意味著能夠自己最內心地和普通地傳達。

they are called that presumably because humanity [Humanitat] means both the universal feeling of sympathy, and the ability to engage universally in very intimate communication. [之所以那樣稱謂,大概是因為人性humanitat既意味著普遍的同情心,也意味著能夠普遍參與非常親密的交流。]

D 大概因為人道一方面意味著普遍的同情感,另方面意味著使自己最內心的東西能夠普遍傳達的能力;這些特點結合在一起就構成了與人性相適合的社交性,通過這種社交性,人類就把自己和動物的局限性區別開來。

When these two qualities are combined, they constitute the sociability that befits [our] humanity [Menschheit] and distinguishes it from the limitation [characteristic] of animals. 

Die Propädeutik zu aller schönen Kunst, sofern es auf den höchsten Grad ihrer Vollkommenheit angelegt ist, scheint nicht in Vorschriften規范, sondern in der Kultur der Gemütskräfte心理能力 durch diejenigen那些Vorkenntnisse預備知識 zu liegen[在于lie], welche man humaniora nennt:

[The propaedeutic 預備-基本 of all fine art, insofar as it is concerned with the highest degree of perfection, seems not to be governed by regulations, but by the culture of the mind by those precognitions預知 which are called humaniora,

 Vermutlich想必, weil Humanität einerseits das allgemeine Teilnehmungsgefühl 參與感, andererseits 另方面das Vermögen能力 sich innigst 密切 und allgemein [genarally] mitteilen [交流tell] zu können bedeutet 意味著; welche Eigenschaften屬性 zusammen一起 verbunden 連接, die der Menschheit angemessene合適 Glückseligkeit 幸福 ausmachen構成, wodurch sie sich von der tierischen Eingeschränktheit unterscheidet./ animal -limited awareness-differentiate/

[presumably because humanity, on the one hand, is the general feeling of participation; the ability to communicate intimately and generally; which attributes together that make humanity adequate bliss, distinguishing it from animal limitation.]  mitteilen 把心里話全部說出來,傾訴衷情;② 傳播到,傳給



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